Sunday, November 28, 2010

Columbus Dispatch: Smarter Searching, Mobile devices put listing information in the palms of homebuyers' hands

The story is here

Sunday, November 28, 2010 03:01 AM


When Bob Barnes and Ryan Poirier headed out a few weeks ago to shop for homes, they made sure to bring Barnes' cell phone - but not to call people.

They wanted the phone to find homes.

With the help of their real-estate agent, Barnes and Poirier had placed a home-search tool called Smarter Agent on Barnes' Android phone. The service guided them to homes for sale in the Clintonville neighborhood they were searching.

Ryan Poirier, left, and Bob Barnes use an Android phone to search for homes in Clintonville, including this one on Acton Road.

"You don't have to lug around a computer or have tons of printouts," Barnes said. "When we drove into an area, the phone lists the closest homes for sale, and then you can see the homes and look at pictures."

Such mobile technology is changing the way many buyers search for real estate.

"It's the next generation of shopping for a home," said Barnes' agent, Terry Penrod, with Real Living HER. "What the Internet did for real estate, the mobile application will do for the search. It puts data into the buyers' hands where they want it when they want it."

Get my free application here

Mobile devices have long had uses in real-estate searches, from simply texting an agent to sending a photo of a house.

But smart phones such as iPhones, Palms, BlackBerries and Androids dramatically changed the game by combining easy Web access with the GPS, allowing shoppers to browse a neighborhood and pull up information on homes for sale as they pass by.

No one tracks how many people use such services on smart phones or other mobile devices such as iPads, but agents and experts say use has leapt the past few years.

On an iPad, homebuyers can circle a neighborhood to search.

"There's definitely been growth," said Sarah Poston, e-marketing director for Coldwell Banker King Thompson. "Over 90 percent of homebuyers in general are using the Internet to search for homes, and 30 percent of the nation is accessing the Internet through mobile devices."

Some services focus on a portion of real-estate listings such as foreclosed properties or rentals.

But the most common combine real-estate listing information with mapping services. Among the most popular such applications are those produced by Realtor. com, Zillow, Coldwell Banker, Trulia and

All allow users to find homes for sale near their current location or near an address they enter. Most draw listings directly from local Multiple Listing Services, although a Dispatch sample found a wide variance in the number of listings the five applications pulled up.

The information can be refined by price range, type of property, number of bedrooms and so forth. Users can click on the homes to access the same details they would find online with, typically, several photos of the home.

Beyond that basic function, the services vary slightly in the way the information is presented:

•'s service allows users to search neighborhood open houses, and in the Dispatch sample, appeared to offer the fullest lineup of listings.

• Coldwell Banker also allows a search of recent sales, open houses and listings that have appeared in the past seven days, although in a test, Coldwell Banker's listings were not as comprehensive as some others.

• Zillow presents both map and listing details on the same screen, allowing a user to see information about homes without losing the map. Zillow also adds an estimate of a home's worth (what it calls its "Zestimate") and, on the same screen, shows homes recently sold in addition to homes for sale.

• Trulia also offers open-house searches and searches for properties that are for sale, for rent or have been sold, though not on the same page. The listings were not as comprehensive as others, though the service offers one unusual feature: searching strictly homes that have dropped in price.

• also failed to show many listings, although the service offers one potentially useful function: a mortgage calculator on each listing, allowing an immediate check of the monthly payment.

Such services are available on smart phones, but companies are now exploring ways to provide similar services to conventional cell phones. Coldwell Banker offers something called prtmobile, which allows users of any phone to call a number, punch in the code from a real-estate sign and learn about a house and request a showing from the agent.

Patrick Guanciale, a Coldwell Banker agent in Newark, has been using the service for some of his listings for more than a year.

A real-estate agent's sign in Newark includes signage for PRT, which allows potential buyers to search for homes using a mobile device.

"I was at the Quarter Horse Congress a few weeks ago and got a call about one of my listings," Guanciale said. "I was able to stand there and tell them about it, and send them more information. I sent them 22 pictures."

Real Living HER is exploring a similar service that uses a street address instead of a code from the sign.

Some companies are also exploring something called QR code, which skips the dialing part altogether. Shoppers with the phones that can read the codes can simply scan the code into a phone to access the information.

Such applications are useful, but they are basically extensions of what people can do from their personal computer, notes Mark Lesswing, the senior vice president and chief technology officer with the National Association of Realtors.

In the future, he said, look for services that are unique to mobile devices, such as phones that recognize images, allowing users to simply point the phone at the house and automatically download information.

A variation of this service that's potentially on the horizon would allow a home shopper to scan a neighborhood he likes with his phone, and the service would suggest similar neighborhoods he might consider.

"A lot of what we've seen so far is somewhat pedestrian," Lesswing said. "You'll see that change."

Please note: One image was added to this post

Friday, November 26, 2010

This year's central Ohio housing market mirroring 2009

Posted: 11/22/2010
Columbus Board of REALTORS®

(November 23, 2010) The housing market in central Ohio, which rebounded nicely when the federal tax credits were offered in 2009 and early 2010, today is looking like “more of the same.”

According to the Columbus Board of REALTORS® (CBR), the number of homes sold and the average price of homes sold from January though October 2010 are nearly identical to the statistics from 2009.

The number of homes sold from January through October was 16,891 – almost identical to the 16,932 homes sold in the same period of 2009. Average sale price so far this year is $160,671 compared to $161,623 last year.

“While we certainly would like to see a more lively housing market, we’re just pleased that year-to-date numbers are holding their own,” says CBR President Sue Lusk-Gleich.

Home sales are likely to grow in 2011, but not too quickly. According to the New York Federal Reserve Bank, household finances are improving, and major purchases will increase as well.

Freddie Mac reports that the average 30-year fixed mortgage rate in October 2010 was 4.23 percent – the lowest rate since the statistics were first recorded by Freddie Mac in 1971. Ten years ago, the rate was 7.8 percent; 20 years ago, it was 10.17 percent; 30 years ago, it was 13.79 percent. According to Lusk-Gleich, “The time to buy is now.”

“Those of us in the real estate profession continue to talk about how perfect this market is for many buyers – especially for those purchasing their first home,” Lusk-Gleich adds.

The Columbus Board of REALTORS® Multiple Listing Service (MLS) serves all of Franklin, Delaware, Fayette, Madison, Morrow, Pickaway and Union Counties and parts of Champagne, Clark, Hocking, Licking, Fairfield, Knox, Logan, Marion, and Ross Counties.

For more information about the central Ohio housing market, visit

To view residential properties for sale, visit

Tuesday, November 23, 2010

Columbus Mayor Coleman to Seek Re-Election in 2011

For immediate release

November 23, 2010

Contact: Greg Haas, Coleman for Columbus, 614-374-1991

Mayor Coleman to Seek Re-Election in 2011

Michael B. Coleman announced today he will ask City of Columbus voters to return him to the office of mayor in November of 2011. Since taking office in 2000 Mayor Coleman has amassed a record of strong, safe neighborhoods, job creation and fiscal responsibility. Coleman was first elected mayor in 1999 and was re-elected in 2003 and 2007. He was elected to Columbus City Council in 1993 and 1997 and was chosen by his colleagues to be council president in 1996.

“Working with and working for the people of Columbus has been the honor of my life, but we have more to do,” Mayor Coleman said. “We need to keep fighting for our neighborhoods and for jobs while operating a responsive, efficient government for its people.”

Under Mayor Coleman’s leadership Columbus is:

- Repeatedly recognized as the best-managed big city in the country—the only one of its size to receive a Triple-A credit rating from all three rating agencies
- Known as beacon of economic activity in the Midwest—recognized by U.S. and World Report as one of the nation’s best cities to find a job.
- The safest big city in Ohio—and the nation’s second-safest city for young families, according to Standards in Safety.
- One of the nation’s up-and-coming cities for technology, biking and the environment—with a fleet that is repeatedly recognized as one of the greenest in America.
- Among the best cities in the nation for young professionals, African American families and gays and lesbians.

Thursday, November 18, 2010

Columbus Dispatch: On-street parking off-limits to valets

The story is here

Short North dispute

On-street parking off-limits to valets

Kyle Robertson | DISPATCH
Cody Ellis, a valet with Parking Solutions, gets into a customer's car outside Sushi Rock in the Short North. Parking Solutions uses private lots but parks cars on the street in a pinch.

City plans rules requiring they use only private lots

Thursday, November 18, 2010 03:03 AM


Park-it-yourselfers have won the war against valets for the most prime spots in the Short North, Arena District, Downtown and German Village.

A policy change being finalized by the Columbus Department of Public Service would ban valet-parking businesses from snatching metered and free spaces on city streets, requiring them instead to line up private lots to park their customers' vehicles.

The new rules also would prohibit valet businesses from blocking traffic lanes, intersections, crosswalks, sidewalks and wheelchair ramps.

And another provision would outlaw what city officials say is an under-the-table practice in which big tips buy rock-star parking in areas reserved for vehicles entering or leaving valet zones.

Randy Bowman, who directs the department's transportation division, said private businesses shouldn't profit from public property.

But Aaron Shocket, whose valet company Parking Solutions Inc. works with several Short North restaurants, said the city benefits, too, because valet businesses cater to suburban customers who might not venture into the neighborhood if they had to hunt for parking.

In addition to banning on-street parking for valet services, the city also will begin enforcing a long-overlooked rule and charge operators full price for metered parking spaces blocked off to create valet zones.

The ban on valet-parked vehicles using metered or free on-street parking, city-owned lots or city-owned garages will be imposed as valet companies acquire or renew annual permits, Bowman said. That will be July 1 for those now in business.

Although the new policy will apply citywide, the parking-space battle between valets and those who want to park their own vehicles has been most intense in the Short North, where parking-place supply sometimes falls short of visitors' demand.

Shocket, whose valets use private lots but park vehicles on the street in a pinch, said a problem exists once a month, on Gallery Hop nights.

"The exception will become the norm," he said.

Some neighborhood residents and area business owners who don't offer valet service complained at public hearings that valets sometimes drive dangerously as they search for parking, badger people to hurry as they pull out of spaces, or stand in someone else's way until co-workers pull in.

The new city policy demands that valet workers be "polite, professional and courteous."

John Allen, owner of the Short North Tavern, said the problem has grown with the neighborhood's popularity.

"The public parking spaces have become a big valet parking lot," he said.

Valet companies have argued at hearings that public parking should be available to everyone, whether people park their own vehicles or pay someone else to do it.

Bowman said his department is reviewing one concern raised by the valet-parking businesses: what to do if they're unable to find private parking nearby. City officials didn't look into the availability of private lots in the Short North and other areas, he said.

Monday, November 15, 2010

NPR: The Housing Dilemma: It's Holding Workers Back

November 15, 2010

National Homeownership Rates Hit 50-Year Low
Justin Sullivan/Getty Images

Companies report that many employees are reluctant to relocate because of the depressed housing market.

November 15, 2010

More and more people could face the dilemma of choosing between a job and a house — especially if the job market improves faster than the housing market.

Joblessness is a drag on the housing market, with many people no longer able to afford their homes. But the reverse is also true; a house that's lost value can prevent someone from taking a job that requires a move.

Although recruitment has been down over the past few years, some experts say the inability to unload homes could become one of the biggest obstacles to matching talent with the right job. Experts say more and more people could face the dilemma of choosing between a job and a house — especially if the job market improves faster than the housing market.

Jim Mallozzi, CEO of Prudential Real Estate and Relocation Services, which contracts with corporations and government agencies to handle logistics for moving employees, says he already sees that dynamic at play.

"More people are reluctant to move," he says. "The inability to sell their house or having negative equity is probably now the No. 1 reason why people are refusing a move."

People are more often turning down jobs or relocating and leaving their families behind, he says. Government agencies that previously relocated workers every two or three years are extending those terms because many people can't afford the move.

Prudential's business has shifted from handling the move itself, to consulting with workers who are trying to decide whether to move for the job at all.

Mallozzi is quite familiar with this dilemma: He's relocating himself.

"I'm in the middle of one right now from the East Coast to the West Coast," he says. Mallozzi is having some of the very same issues he encounters with his clients. He's still trying to work out whether to sell the house and move his family — or to travel back and forth instead.

Held Back By Housing

In Mallozzi's case, the house isn't holding back his career. But among Prudential's clients, he says, a growing number of people back out of plans to move for their company. He says that number has gone from 5 percent a few years ago to 35 percent — largely because they feel held back by housing.

In fact, a study by a trade group called Worldwide ERC found that three-quarters of employers find growing reluctance among workers to move — again, largely because their homes have lost value.

Deciding To Ditch A Home

Andrea Davis and her family have experience with this. Two years ago, Davis' husband was offered a very good aircraft mechanic's job in North Carolina. He took it, initially, but because they were unable to sell, rent or refinance their home in Albuquerque, N.M., he quit and moved back.

"I felt trapped," Davis says. "It just got worse over time."

Recently her husband was offered the same job again, and this time they decided to ditch the New Mexico house — though not without huge regrets.

"It was really hard to walk away from that house yesterday," Davis says, breaking down in tears. After years of making on-time payments — even as their interest rate soared to over 12 percent — Davis says they just missed a payment for the first time.

"I think people are just going to loot it," she says. "I feel afraid for that. I feel like I'm making the neighborhood worse because I'm leaving it."

But Davis said they felt they had no choice. They couldn't afford not to take the new job.

Support For Long-Distance Commuting

Robert Damon, president of North American operations for the executive-recruitment firm Korn/Ferry International, says even top executives are finding it hard to sell their homes to relocate.

"Companies are avoiding [the problem] by allowing the executive to commute for a year or two," he says.

But Damon says with the job market recovering faster than housing, companies will have to reverse the trend of reducing relocation and moving benefits, and spend more to attract the talent they want.

"Companies are going to have to start making good on any of the money they lose on houses, and also give them assistance on the houses they buy," Damon says.

Top Reasons Why Employees Are Reluctant To Relocate

Graphic showing top reasons why employees are reluctant to relocate


More than 90 percent of the companies with problems relocating employees said the housing market at the old location was the primary reason workers were reluctant to move. The list of reasons is based on 95 companies experiencing problems with employees reluctant to relocate.

Read More About The Impact Of The Housing Market On Jobs, Family

Saturday, November 13, 2010

New York Times Mag: [Columbus,] How the Ohio city became a Midwestern gay mecca.

Hello, Columbus

| November 12, 2010, 11:28 am

IN THE HEARTLAND Union Cafe, a popular gay and lesbian hangout in Columbus, Ohio. Photographs by Brian Ulrich

The story is here

Lean, tattooed and hunky in the way of a young Henry Rollins, Brian Reaume is living the life of a gay indie Brooklyn or Bay Area artist. He lives in what real estate agents call a ‘‘transitional’’ neighborhood, in a house filled with midcentury furniture and quirky art by him and his friends. In a small shop on a funky strip of cafes, bars and galleries, he sells his paintings along with the vintage housewares that he collects with the shop’s co-owner, Nancy Carlson, who lives upstairs. Two years ago he created ‘‘There’s No Truth in Silence,’’ an installation in his studio — which is among a warren of artists’ spaces in an old warehouse — that drew thousands one weekend with its controversial use of the American flag, a swastika, a cross and a chair emblazoned with the word ‘‘fag.’’

But the life that Reaume leads isn’t in Brooklyn or San Francisco. His tatty-cool neighborhood isn’t Bushwick or the Tenderloin; it’s Kenmore Park in northeast Columbus, Ohio, in, as he put it to me on a recent visit, ‘‘a very good pocket in the middle of the ghetto.’’ And that funky strip with his shop, Birchwater Studios, is North High Street in Columbus’s Short North, which has gone from sketchy to stylish in the past 15 years.

Reaume, 37, grew up outside Detroit and 10 years ago was on his way to an artist’s life in New York. But his brother, already in Columbus, needed a roommate for a year. So Reaume came — and never left. ‘‘I fell in love with it,’’ he told me at his shop. ‘‘There’s so much opportunity to show work here.’’ Reaume has found a market for his abstract canvases and sculptures along with income as a window-display builder for Victoria’s Secret, whose owner, Limited Brands, has its headquarters in Columbus. He’s also the father of an 11-month-old son, Thadeus, having been the sperm donor for friends, a lesbian couple, and he lives in a four-room 1948 Lustron ‘‘kit home’’ that he bought for $63,000. Rather than move to New York, Reaume said, ‘‘I turned Columbus into New York — and made my environment what I wanted.’’

The artist Brian Reaume in his studio.

In Ohio’s capital city, gay men, lesbians and bisexuals make up about 6.7 percent of the population of about 750,000, according to a 2006 study by the UCLA School of Law’s Williams Institute. That’s a far cry from more than 10 percent in San Francisco, Atlanta, Boston, Minneapolis and Seattle, but it’s higher than most Midwestern cities, including Chicago (5.7 percent). And in several Columbus ‘‘gayborhoods’’ — like the Short North, German Village and the lesbian stronghold of Clintonville — the gay quotient is far higher than 6.7 percent.

That’s due in part to Ohio State, the nation’s second largest university, with 55,0000 students. The campus, adjacent to the Short North, is a youth-driven city unto itself that draws thousands of young people from all over the Midwest each fall, among them lesbians, gays and transgender students hungry for the relative openness of the city and the campus. (Campus Pride, a national gay college group, just ranked O.S.U. among the nation’s gay-friendliest campuses.) ‘‘You have this new crop of hot young guys that come every year,’’ said Brent Clevidence, a co-owner of Level, a sleek, year-old restaurant and bar in the Short North that is popular with the gay crowd. ‘‘It’s just a very vibrant community.’’

Besides Limited Brands (the owner of Henri Bendel and Bath & Body Works as well as Victoria’s Secret), Abercrombie & Fitch is also based in Columbus, and both companies lure top design and retail talent — many of them gay — from larger cities. They come and stay for at least a few years, maybe buying a jewel-box Victorian or Craftsman fixer-upper for as little as $200,000. ‘‘We have tons of crossover here from New York and San Francisco, people constantly moving in and out,’’ said Chris Hayes, 37, an Ohio native who moved to Columbus after several years in New York City. ‘‘Columbus really turned itself around in the late ’90s,’’ said Hayes, the editor in chief of Outlook: Columbus, the town’s glossy gay monthly. ‘‘We’re not recession-proof, but we’re not a manufacturing economy, so we’ve done O.K.’’ Four years ago, he paid $281,000 for a 1,400-square-foot loft downtown. ‘‘It’s like my New York dream apartment, but it was affordable.’’

According to longtime residents, Columbus has long had a robust gay population. But like many other cities in the past two decades, it’s become more visible and woven into the town’s broader culture and night life. ‘‘When I first started going to the bars, in the ’80s, you had to go into blank doorways or down alleyways,’’ said Jackie Vanderworth, a stylish, statuesque woman who was holding court one raucous Saturday night at Union, a sprawling restaurant and bar on North High Street. ‘‘Now you have neon signs and people holding hands in the Short North.’’ Vanderworth has been openly transgender at her job at the local Fox TV affiliate since 1996. ‘‘They didn’t bat an eye,’’ she explained of her colleagues’ reaction to her gender transition. ‘‘Our news director has me over for dinner parties.’’

While life here seems easygoing for gay folks, it’s especially so if you learn to love college football. The Ohio State Buckeyes, the reigning Big Ten champion, create citywide mania. ‘‘You can either dive right into the O.S.U. craziness when you move here,’’ Hayes said, ‘‘or you can hate your life for six months.’’ I was in town on game day — when the Buckeyes, to no one’s surprise, trounced small-fry Ohio University, 43-7 — and seemingly everyone in town was wearing scarlet-hued Buckeyes shirts and strings of buckeyes around their necks. That included a dozen members of Scarlet and Gay, O.S.U.’s G.L.B.T. alumni group, plus their friends and lovers, whom I joined at their tailgate party.

‘‘It’s pretty much a spiritual experience when you walk in here and see thousands of your brothers screaming like a fraternity,’’ said Troy Fabish, a real estate agent with a Buckeye-red pompom bobbing from his jeans pocket. ‘‘You feel like you’re part of the family.’’ He said he was even comfortable enough for public displays of affection, and kissed his boyfriend to prove it. During the game, the men took no pains to hide their particular enthusiasm, exclaiming their crushes on certain players. Everyone around them seemed happy to have them in the mix.

That welcoming spirit isn’t surprising, given that Columbus is a fairly progressive city, its broad-minded tone set by Michael B. Coleman, the black Democratic mayor since 2000. ‘‘The G.L.B.T. community is important to the city’s future and economic vitality,’’ Coleman told me, adding that he is working to get the City Council to pass a bill giving health benefits to the domestic partners of city workers.

The fact that such a benefit, available in more than a dozen states, would be a major step forward is a reminder that Columbus is still a gay oasis in progress, in a state that, though it voted for Barack Obama in 2008, remains deeply conservative in some parts. Ohio attracted national attention during the 2004 election when the state passed a referendum, by a two-thirds majority, banning any version of gay marriage whatsoever. It was a devastating margin to Tom Grote, 46, the son of the founder of the region’s 200-store Donatos Pizza chain. ‘‘I totally thought of leaving the state,’’ he told me, recalling the hurt of seeing houses with pro-ban signs in so-called liberal Columbus neighborhoods. Instead, he and a handful of other influential Ohio gays founded Equality Ohio, the state’s first well-funded gay-rights lobby, focusing on efforts like passing a state bill banning work and housing discrimination against homosexuals.

Grote met Rick Neal, then an advocate for refugee issues in Washington, D.C., in 2006. Today the two live in a refurbished 1907 brick house on Schiller Park in German Village. They’re the fathers of 19-month-old Amoret, whom they adopted from a local agency. (Since Ohio forbids gay couples from adopting a child together, Grote is the legal father and Neal has co-custody rights.) Neal said the three of them attracted more gawkers on a recent trip to Germany than they do around town. ‘‘Even in Berlin, Munich — holy cow, their eyes fell out,’’ he said. ‘‘Here, we might get a few stares out at the big mall in Easton. But no comments. This is the Midwest — people are polite.’’ Grote smiled. ‘‘What makes Rick really proud,’’ he said, ‘‘is when African-American women say he does a nice job with Amoret’s hair.’’

Grote and Neal, a Milwaukee native, said Columbus, with its quaint neighborhoods and network of gay parents, is a perfect fit for them. But it can feel limited if you yearn for the cosmopolitanism of bigger cities. Such is the plight of Gabriel Mastin, 28, a personal stylist at Nordstrom who is known to many as the town’s most fashionable young man. The night I met him, Mastin showed up with three of his female friends for dinner at Rigsby’s Kitchen, the city’s culinary pioneer in the Short North. He wore chunky glasses, a silk scarf tied around his neck, pleated trousers made by his tailor and sneakers by John Varvatos for Converse, and he carried a vintage periwinkle American Tourister airline bag.

STYLE COUNSEL Gabriel Mastin at the Short North design shop Collier West.

‘‘Columbus isn’t awful if you find your niche to plug into,’’ he said. ‘‘But it can be tough. It’s very Abercrombie-cornfed-jock-I-eat-at-Max-&-Erma’s-and-Bob Evans. Some of the older gay men are a little more sophisticated.’’ Mastin grew up in Mansfield, Ohio, and told me that his parents have rejected him for being gay. ‘‘We do holidays and birthdays, but that’s about it.’’ In Columbus, he’s found a surrogate family of established, mostly partnered gay men with whom he has thrown himself into activism. Still, he said, ‘‘I want to make major bank and move to London. When I meet someone here who has style, I’m like, ‘Who are you? Can we be friends?’ ’’ Most of the time he just tries to get his male Nordstrom clients out of pleated Dockers and into skinny jeans.

Yet Mastin is doing more in Columbus than just biding his time. ‘‘Gay Pride here is amazing,’’ he told me over wine and Donatos Pizza at Grote and Neal’s house. (Amoret was brought down to say good night in her red Donatos onesie.) ‘‘We get up and dance on boxes with our shirts off every year.’’

‘‘Well,’’ Grote corrected him, ‘‘maybe every few years.’’

ESSENTIALS |  Columbus, Ohio
Hotel The Lofts Large, comfortable rooms in a refurbished downtown brick building near the Short North. Bike rentals available. 55 East Nationwide Boulevard; (614) 461-2663;; doubles from $179.

Restaurants and Cafes German Village Coffee Shop A neighborhood staple since 1981. 193 Thurman Avenue; (614) 443-8900. Jeni’s Splendid Ice Creams The hit artisanal ice-cream chainlet, featuring flavors
like Salty Caramel. 714 North High Street; (614) 294-5364; Level Dining Lounge Sleek hangout with margarita martinis and decadent sweet potato fries. 700 North High Street; (614) 754-7111;; entrees $8 to $17. Rigsby’s Kitchen The 24-year-old Short North game changer serves top-notch Mediterranean fare. 698 North High Street; (614) 461-7888;; entrees $19 to $33. Union Cafe Attracts a gay following with its vaguely Asian décor and menu. 782 North High Street; (614) 421-2233;; entrees $11 to $20.

Bars AWOL Hole-in-the-wall gay bar in quiet, less gentrified Olde Town East. 49 Parsons Avenue; (614) 621-8779. Bodega The Short North’s mixed-crowd hipster dive. 1044 North High Street; (614) 299-9399. Exile Gay bar popular with the leather crowd. 893 North Fourth Street; (614) 299-0069. Wall Street Nightclub Popular lesbian dance club in the Downtown District. 144 North Wall Street; (614) 464-2800.

Shops Birchwater Studios Brian Reaume and Nancy Carlson’s Short North gallery and vintage furnishings store. 815 North High Street; (614) 598-1830; Collier West Stylish home goods and antiques shop in the Short North. 787 North High Street; (614) 294-9378;

Tuesday, November 9, 2010

Woodland Park and Olde Town East Areas: OSU and city to update plans to improve neighborhood

Tuesday, November 9, 2010 10:21 AM

The Columbus Dispatch

Officials today will talk about a new advisory group to help steer neighborhood redevelopment efforts near Ohio State University Hospital East.

Mayor Michael B. Coleman, OSU President E. Gordon Gee and others will discuss the initiative at 2:30 p.m. today at the hospital.

They plan to update the community about an initiative first announced in February by city, university and medical center leaders, said Doug Flowers, spokesman for the hospital.

The university is expected to receive an income-tax rebate as part of its $1 billion expansion of the medical center's main campus, to be completed in 2015. The expansion is expected to create thousands of permanent and construction jobs.

OSU plans to use $10 million from the rebate to invest in the community around University Hospital East to address neighborhood housing and health-care needs.

View Larger Map

The Columbus City Council still needs to approve the rebate, he said.

The city and OSU have been working with the Columbus Metropolitan Housing Authority on developing the working group, said Charles Hillman, chief executive for the housing agency.

CMHA will begin emptying its Poindexter Village housing project next year, leaving 25 acres to be redeveloped.

Annie Ross-Womack, who leads the zoning committee for the Near East Area Commission, said she was asked to serve on the board.

She called the effort a step in the right direction to boost the area's housing stock.

She said people on the committee will be asking OSU about expanding services at the hospital, including maternity care.

National Association of Realtors Votes to Prohibit Discrimination Based on Sexual Orientation

At the National Association of Realtors annual meeting this year in New Orleans, the delegate body approved an anti-discrimination measure:

Realtor "The NAR Delegate Body approved an amendment to Article 10 of the Code of Ethics to prohibit discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation. In a roll-call vote, more than 93 percent of the Delegate Body voted in favor of the amendment. The Delegate Body decision confirms a vote by the Board of Directors in May."

The NAR Code of Ethics applies to both Realtor to client conduct, and to conduct in the work place.

Sunday, November 7, 2010

5 Year Real Estate Data for Franklin County (Columbus, Ohio)

This data can be created for any ZIP code, Price Range, Basic Amenities and/or School District in Central Ohio.

Please contact me for more information.


Average Selling Price:

September 2005: $170,000
September 2010: $146,000

Average Selling Price Per Square Foot:

September 2005: $104.00
September 2010: $84.00
Average Days on Market:

September 2005: 77 Days
September 2010: 92 Days

Months of Available Inventory:

September 2005: 6.6 Months
September 2010: 12 Months

Saturday, November 6, 2010

The History of Daylight Saving Time

Daylight saving time

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
(Redirected from Day light savings time)
Jump to: navigation, search
World map. Europe, Russia, most of North America, parts of southern South America and southern Australia, and a few other places use DST. Most of equatorial Africa and a few other places near the equator have never used DST. The rest of the land mass is marked as formerly using DST.
Although not used by most of the world's people, daylight saving time is common in the Northern Hemisphere high latitudes. DST observed DST no longer observed DST never observed

Daylight saving time (DST)—also summer time in British English (see Terminology)—is the practice of temporarily advancing clocks during the summertime so that afternoons have more daylight and mornings have less. Typically clocks are adjusted forward one hour near the start of spring and are adjusted backward in autumn.[1] Modern DST was first proposed in 1895 by George Vernon Hudson.[2] Many countries have used it since then; details vary by location and change occasionally.

The practice is controversial.[1] Adding daylight to afternoons benefits retailing, sports, and other activities that exploit sunlight after working hours,[3] but causes problems for farming, evening entertainment and other occupations tied to the sun.[4][5] Traffic fatalities are reduced when there is extra afternoon daylight.[6] Its effect on health and crime is less clear. Although an early goal of DST was to reduce evening usage of incandescent lighting, formerly a primary use of electricity,[7] modern heating and cooling usage patterns differ greatly, and research about how DST currently affects energy use is limited or contradictory.[8]

DST's occasional clock shifts present other challenges. They complicate timekeeping, and can disrupt meetings, travel, billing, recordkeeping, medical devices, heavy equipment,[9] and sleep patterns.[10] Software can often adjust computer clocks automatically, but this can be limited and error-prone, particularly when DST protocols are changed.[11]



[edit] Origin

A water clock. A small human figurine holds a pointer to a cylinder marked by the hours. The cylinder is connected by gears to a water wheel driven by water that also floats a part that supports the figurine.
In this ancient water clock, a series of gears rotated a cylinder to display hour lengths appropriate for each day's date.

Although not punctual in the modern sense, ancient civilizations adjusted daily schedules to the sun more flexibly than modern DST does, often dividing daylight into twelve hours regardless of day length, so that each daylight hour was longer during summer.[12] For example, Roman water clocks had different scales for different months of the year: at Rome's latitude the third hour from sunrise, hora tertia, started by modern standards at 09:02 solar time and lasted 44 minutes at the winter solstice, but at the summer solstice it started at 06:58 and lasted 75 minutes.[13] After ancient times, equal-length civil hours eventually supplanted unequal, so civil time no longer varies by season. Unequal hours are still used in a few traditional settings, such as some Mount Athos monasteries[14] and all Jewish ceremonies.[15]

A seated older Benjamin Franklin from the waist up, with body facing to viewer's right but head turned toward the artist. Franklin's waistcoat is bulging a bit, his expression is inscrutable, and his hair hangs down to his shoulders.
Benjamin Franklin satirically suggested firing cannons at sunrise to wake Parisians

During his time as an American envoy to France, Benjamin Franklin, author of the proverb, "Early to bed, and early to rise, makes a man healthy, wealthy and wise", anonymously published a letter suggesting that Parisians economize on candles by rising earlier to use morning sunlight.[16] This 1784 satire proposed taxing shutters, rationing candles, and waking the public by ringing church bells and firing cannons at sunrise.[17] Franklin did not propose DST; like ancient Rome, 18th-century Europe did not keep precise schedules. However, this soon changed as rail and communication networks came to require a standardization of time unknown in Franklin's day.[18]

Fuzzy head-and-shoulders photo of a 40-year-old man in a cloth cap and mustache.
G.V. Hudson invented modern DST, proposing it first in 1895.

Modern DST was first proposed by the New Zealand entomologist George Vernon Hudson, whose shift-work job gave him leisure time to collect insects, and made him aware of the value of after-hours daylight.[2] In 1895 he presented a paper to the Wellington Philosophical Society proposing a two-hour daylight-saving shift,[19] and after considerable interest was expressed in Christchurch, New Zealand he followed up in an 1898 paper.[20] Many publications incorrectly credit DST's invention to the prominent English builder and outdoorsman William Willett,[21] who independently conceived DST in 1905 during a pre-breakfast ride, when he observed with dismay how many Londoners slept through a large part of a summer day.[22] An avid golfer, he also disliked cutting short his round at dusk.[23] His solution was to advance the clock during the summer months, a proposal he published two years later.[24] The proposal was taken up by the Liberal Member of Parliament (MP) Robert Pearce, who introduced the first Daylight Saving Bill to the House of Commons on 12 February 1908.[25] A select committee was set up to examine the issue, but Pearce's bill did not become law, and several other bills failed in the following years. Willett lobbied for the proposal in the UK until his death in 1915.

Starting on 30 April 1916, Germany and its World War I allies were the first to use DST (ger.: Sommerzeit) as a way to conserve coal during wartime. Britain, most of its allies, and many European neutrals soon followed suit. Russia and a few other countries waited until the next year and the United States adopted it in 1918. Since then, the world has seen many enactments, adjustments, and repeals.[26]

[edit] How it works

Diagram of a clock showing a transition from 2:00 to 3:00.
When DST starts in central Europe, clocks advance from 02:00 CET to 03:00 CEST.
Diagram of a clock showing a transition from 3:00 to 2:00.
When DST ends in central Europe, clocks retreat from 03:00 CEST to 02:00 CET. Other regions switch at different times.

In a typical case where a one-hour shift occurs at 02:00 local time, in spring the clock jumps forward from 02:00 standard time to 03:00 DST and that day has 23 hours, whereas in autumn the clock jumps backward from 02:00 DST to 01:00 standard time, repeating that hour, and that day has 25 hours. A digital display of local time does not read 02:00 exactly at the shift, but instead jumps from 01:59:59.9 either forward to 03:00:00.0 or backward to 01:00:00.0. In this example, a location observing UTC+10 during standard time is at UTC+11 during DST; conversely, a location at UTC−10 during standard time is at UTC−9 during DST.

Clock shifts are usually scheduled near a weekend midnight to lessen disruption to weekday schedules. A one-hour shift is customary, but Australia's Lord Howe Island uses a half-hour shift.[27] Twenty-minute and two-hour shifts have been used in the past.

Coordination strategies differ when adjacent time zones shift clocks. The European Union shifts all at once, at 01:00 UTC; for example, Eastern European Time is always one hour ahead of Central European Time.[28] Most of North America shifts at 02:00 local time, so its zones do not shift at the same time; for example, Mountain Time can be temporarily either zero or two hours ahead of Pacific Time. In the past, Australian districts went even further and did not always agree on start and end dates; for example, in 2008 most DST-observing areas shifted clocks forward on October 5 but Western Australia shifted on October 26.[29] In some cases only part of a country shifts; for example, in the U.S., Hawaii and most of Arizona do not observe DST.[30]

Start and end dates vary with location and year. Since 1996 European Summer Time has been observed from the last Sunday in March to the last Sunday in October; previously the rules were not uniform across the European Union.[28] Starting in 2007, most of the United States and Canada observe DST from the second Sunday in March to the first Sunday in November, almost two-thirds of the year.[31] The 2007 U.S. change was part of the Energy Policy Act of 2005; previously, from 1987 through 2006, the start and end dates were the first Sunday in April and the last Sunday in October, and Congress retains the right to go back to the previous dates now that an energy-consumption study has been done.[32]

Time graph. The horizontal axis shows dates in 2008. The vertical axis shows the UTC offsets of eastern Brazil and eastern U.S. The difference between the two starts at 3 hours, then goes to 2 hours on February 17 at 24:00 Brazil eastern time, then goes to 1 hour on March 9 at 02:00 U.S. eastern time.
In early 2008 central Brazil was one, two, or three hours ahead of eastern U.S., depending on the date.

Beginning and ending dates are the reverse in the southern hemisphere. For example, mainland Chile observes DST from the second Saturday in October to the second Saturday in March, with transitions at 24:00 local time.[33] The time difference between the United Kingdom and mainland Chile may therefore be five hours during the Northern summer, three hours during the Northern winter and four hours a few weeks per year because of mismatch of changing dates.

Map of the time zone boundaries of the world. Generally the borders run north-south and there are about 24 zones, but there are many exceptions where the borders follow national boundaries and a few half-hour or quarter-hour zones exist.
Time zones often lie west of their idealized boundaries, resulting in year-round DST.

Western China, Iceland, and other areas skew time zones westward, in effect observing DST year-round without complications from clock shifts. For example, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, is at 106° 39′ W longitude, slightly west of center of the idealized Mountain Time Zone (105° W), but the time in Saskatchewan is Central Standard Time (90° W) year-round, so Saskatoon is always about 67 minutes ahead of mean solar time.[34] Conversely, northeast India and a few other areas skew time zones eastward, in effect observing negative DST.[35] The United Kingdom and Ireland experimented with year-round DST from 1968 to 1971 but abandoned it because of its unpopularity, particularly in northern regions.[36]

Western France, Spain, and other areas skew time zones and shift clocks, in effect observing DST in winter with an extra hour in summer. For example, Nome, Alaska, is at 165° 24′ W longitude, which is just west of center of the idealized Samoa Time Zone (165° W), but Nome observes Alaska Time (135° W) with DST, so it is slightly more than two hours ahead of the sun in winter and three in summer.[37] Double daylight saving time has been used on occasion; for example, Britain used it during World War II.[28]

DST is generally not observed near the equator, where sunrise times do not vary enough to justify it. Some countries observe it only in some regions; for example, southern Brazil observes it while equatorial Brazil does not.[38] Only a minority of the world's population uses DST because Asia and Africa generally do not observe it.

[edit] Benefits and drawbacks

A standing man in three-piece suit, facing camera. He is about 60 and is bald with a mustache. His left hand is in his pants pocket, and his right hand is in front of his chest, holding his pocket watch.
William Willett independently proposed DST in 1907 and advocated it tirelessly.[39]

Willett's 1907 proposal argued that DST increases opportunities for outdoor leisure activities during afternoon sunlight hours. The longer days nearer the summer solstice in high latitudes offer more room to shift daylight from morning to evening so that early morning daylight is not wasted.[24] DST is commonly not observed during most of winter, because its mornings are darker: workers may have no sunlit leisure time, and children may need to leave for school in the dark.[40]

General agreement about the day's layout confers so many advantages that a standard DST schedule usually outranks ad hoc efforts to get up earlier, even for people who personally dislike the DST schedule.[41] The advantages of coordination are so great that many people ignore whether DST is in effect by altering their nominal work schedules to coordinate with television broadcasts or daylight.[42]

[edit] Energy use

DST's potential to save energy comes primarily from its effects on residential lighting, which consumes about 3.5% of electricity in the U.S. and Canada.[8] Delaying the nominal time of sunset and sunrise reduces the use of artificial light in the evening and increases it in the morning. As Franklin's 1784 satire pointed out, lighting costs are reduced if the evening reduction outweighs the morning increase, as in high-latitude summer when most people wake up well after sunrise. An early goal of DST was to reduce evening usage of incandescent lighting, formerly a primary use of electricity.[7] Although energy conservation remains an important goal,[35] energy usage patterns have greatly changed since then, and recent research is limited and reports contradictory results. Electricity use is greatly affected by geography, climate, and economics, making it hard to generalize from single studies.[8]

  • The U.S. Dept. of Transportation (DOT) concluded in 1975 that DST might reduce the country's electricity usage by 1% during March and April,[8] but the National Bureau of Standards (NBS) reviewed the DOT study in 1976 and found no significant savings.[40]
  • In 2000 when parts of Australia began DST in late winter, overall electricity consumption did not decrease, but the morning peak load and prices increased.[43]
  • In Western Australia during summer 2006–07, DST increased electricity consumption during hotter days and decreased it during cooler days, with consumption rising 0.6% overall.[44]
  • Although a 2007 study estimated that introducing DST to Japan would reduce household lighting energy consumption,[45] a 2007 simulation estimated that DST would increase overall energy use in Osaka residences by 0.13%, with a 0.02% decrease due to less lighting more than outweighed by a 0.15% increase due to extra cooling; neither study examined non-residential energy use.[46] DST's effect on lighting energy use is noticeable mainly in residences.[8]
  • A 2007 study found that the earlier start to DST that year had little or no effect on electricity consumption in California.[47]
  • A 2007 study estimated that winter daylight saving would prevent a 2% increase in average daily electricity consumption in Great Britain.[48] This paper was revised in October 2009 .[49]
  • A 2008 study examined billing data in Indiana before and after it adopted DST in 2006, and concluded that DST increased overall residential electricity consumption by 1% to 4%, due mostly to extra afternoon cooling and extra morning heating; the main increases came in the fall. The overall annual cost of DST to Indiana households was estimated to be $9 million, with an additional $1.7–5.5 million for social costs due to increased pollution.[50]
  • The U.S. Dept. of Energy (DOE) concluded in a 2008 report that the 2007 U.S. extension of DST saved 0.5% of electricity usage during the extended period.[51] This report analyzed only the extension, not the full eight months of daylight saving, and did not examine the use of heating fuels.[52]

Several studies have suggested that DST increases motor fuel consumption.[8] The 2008 DOE report found no significant increase in motor gasoline consumption due to the 2007 U.S. extension of DST.[51]

[edit] Economic effects

Retailers, sporting goods makers, and other businesses benefit from extra afternoon sunlight, as it induces customers to shop and to participate in outdoor afternoon sports.[53] In 1984, Fortune magazine estimated that a seven-week extension of DST would yield an additional $30 million for 7-Eleven stores, and the National Golf Foundation estimated the extension would increase golf industry revenues $200 million to $300 million.[54] A 1999 study estimated that DST increases the revenue of the European Union's leisure sector by about 3%.[8] Conversely, DST can adversely affect farmers and others whose hours are set by the sun.[4] For example, grain harvesting is best done after dew evaporates, so when field hands arrive and leave earlier in summer their labor is less valuable.[55] DST also hurts prime-time broadcast ratings[5] and drive-in and other theaters.[56]

Changing clocks and DST rules has a direct economic cost, entailing extra work to support remote meetings, computer applications and the like. For example, a 2007 North American rule change cost an estimated $500 million to $1 billion.[57] Although it has been argued that clock shifts correlate with decreased economic efficiency, and that in 2000 the daylight-saving effect implied an estimated one-day loss of $31 billion on U.S. stock exchanges,[58] the estimated numbers depend on the methodology[59] and the results have been disputed.[60]

[edit] Public safety

In 1975 the U.S. DOT conservatively identified a 0.7% reduction in traffic fatalities during DST, and estimated the real reduction to be 1.5% to 2%,[61] but the 1976 NBS review of the DOT study found no differences in traffic fatalities.[40] In 1995 the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety estimated a reduction of 1.2%, including a 5% reduction in crashes fatal to pedestrians.[6] Others have found similar reductions.[62] Single/Double Summer Time (SDST), a variant where clocks are one hour ahead of the sun in winter and two in summer, has been projected to reduce traffic fatalities by 3% to 4% in the UK, compared to ordinary DST.[63] It is not clear whether sleep disruption contributes to fatal accidents immediately after the spring clock shifts.[64] A correlation between clock shifts and traffic accidents has been observed in North America and the UK but not in Finland or Sweden. If this effect exists, it is far smaller than the overall reduction in traffic fatalities.[65] A 2009 U.S. study found that on Mondays after the switch to DST, workers sleep an average of 40 minutes less, and are injured at work more often and more severely.[66]

In the 1970s the U.S. Law Enforcement Assistance Administration (LEAA) found a reduction of 10% to 13% in Washington, D.C.'s violent crime rate during DST. However, the LEAA did not filter out other factors, and it examined only two cities and found crime reductions only in one and only in some crime categories; the DOT decided it was "impossible to conclude with any confidence that comparable benefits would be found nationwide".[67] Outdoor lighting has a marginal and sometimes even contradictory influence on crime and fear of crime.[68]

In several countries, fire safety officials encourage citizens to use the two annual clock shifts as reminders to replace batteries in smoke and carbon monoxide detectors, particularly in autumn, just before the heating and candle season causes an increase in home fires. Similar twice-yearly tasks include reviewing and practicing fire escape and family disaster plans, inspecting vehicle lights, checking storage areas for hazardous materials, reprogramming thermostats, and seasonal vaccinations.[69] Locations without DST can instead use the first days of spring and autumn as reminders.[70]

[edit] Health

Graph of sunrise and sunset times for 2007. The horizontal axis is the date; the vertical axis is the times of sunset and sunrise. There is a bulge in the center during summer, when sunrise is early and sunset late. There are step functions in spring and fall, when DST starts and stops.
Clock shifts affecting apparent sunrise and sunset times at Greenwich in 2007.[71]

DST has mixed effects on health. In societies with fixed work schedules it provides more afternoon sunlight for outdoor exercise.[72] It alters sunlight exposure; whether this is beneficial depends on one's location and daily schedule, as sunlight triggers vitamin D synthesis in the skin, but overexposure can lead to skin cancer.[73] Sunlight strongly influences seasonal affective disorder. DST may help in depression by causing individuals to rise earlier,[74] but some argue the reverse.[75] The Retinitis Pigmentosa Foundation Fighting Blindness, chaired by blind sports magnate Gordon Gund, successfully lobbied in 1985 and 2005 for U.S. DST extensions,[3][76] but DST can hurt night blindness sufferers.[77]

Clock shifts disrupt sleep and reduce its efficiency.[10] Effects on seasonal adaptation of the circadian rhythm can be severe and last for weeks.[78] A 2008 study found that although male suicide rates rise in the weeks after the spring transition, the relationship weakened greatly after adjusting for season.[79] A 2008 Swedish study found that heart attacks were significantly more common the first three weekdays after the spring transition, and significantly less common the first weekday after the autumn transition.[80] The government of Kazakhstan cited health complications due to clock shifts as a reason for abolishing DST in 2005.[81]

[edit] Complexity

DST's clock shifts have the obvious disadvantage of complexity. People must remember to change their clocks; this consumes time, particularly for mechanical clocks that cannot be moved backward safely.[82] As more devices contain clocks, more time is spent changing them.[83] People who work across time zone boundaries need to keep track of multiple DST rules, as not all locations observe DST or observe it the same way. The length of the calendar day becomes variable; it is no longer always 24 hours. Disruption to meetings, travel, broadcasts, billing systems, and records management is common, and can be expensive.[84] During an autumn transition from 02:00 to 01:00, a clock reads times from 01:00:00 through 01:59:59 twice, possibly leading to confusion.[85]

A standing stone in a grassy field surrounded by trees. The stone contains a vertical sundial centered on 1 o'clock, and is inscribed "HORAS NON NUMERO NISI ÆSTIVAS" and "SUMMER TIME ACT 1925".
The William Willett Memorial Sundial is always on DST.

Some computer-based systems require downtime or restarting when clocks shift; ignoring this requirement damaged a German steel facility in 1993.[9] Medical devices may generate adverse events that could harm patients, without being obvious to clinicians responsible for care.[86] These problems are compounded when the DST rules themselves change; software developers must test and perhaps modify many programs, and users must install updates and restart applications. Consumers must update devices such as programmable thermostats with the correct DST rules, or manually adjust the devices' clocks.[11]

Some clock-shift problems could be avoided by adjusting clocks continuously[87] or at least more gradually—for example, Willett at first suggested weekly 20-minute transitions—but this would add complexity and has never been implemented.

DST inherits and can magnify the disadvantages of standard time. For example, when reading a sundial, one must compensate for it along with time zone and natural discrepancies.[88] Also, sun-exposure guidelines like avoiding the sun within two hours of noon become less accurate when DST is in effect.[89]

[edit] Politics

Daylight saving has caused controversy since it began.[1] Winston Churchill argued that it enlarges "the opportunities for the pursuit of health and happiness among the millions of people who live in this country".[90] Robertson Davies, however, detected "the bony, blue-fingered hand of Puritanism, eager to push people into bed earlier, and get them up earlier, to make them healthy, wealthy and wise in spite of themselves",[91] and pundits have dubbed it "Daylight Slaving Time".[92] Historically, retailing, sports and tourism interests have favored daylight saving, while agricultural and evening entertainment interests have opposed it, and its initial adoption has been prompted by energy crisis and war.[93]

The fate of Willett's 1907 proposal illustrates several political issues involved. The proposal attracted many supporters, including Balfour, Churchill, Lloyd George, MacDonald, Edward VII (who used half-hour DST at Sandringham), the managing director of Harrods, and the manager of the National Bank. However, the opposition was stronger: it included Prime Minister Asquith, Christie (the Astronomer Royal), George Darwin, Napier Shaw (director of the Meteorological Office), many agricultural organizations, and theater owners. After many hearings the proposal was narrowly defeated in a Parliament committee vote in 1909. Willett's allies introduced similar bills every year from 1911 through 1914, to no avail.[94] The U.S. was even more skeptical: Andrew Peters introduced a DST bill to the U.S. House of Representatives in May 1909, but it soon died in committee.[95]

Poster titled "VICTORY! CONGRESS PASSES DAYLIGHT SAVING BILL" showing Uncle Sam turning a clock to daylight saving time as a clock-headed figure throws his hat in the air. The clock face of the figure reads "ONE HOUR OF EXTRA DAYLIGHT". The bottom caption says "Get Your Hoe Ready!"
Retailers generally favor DST. United Cigar Stores hailed a 1918 DST bill.

After Germany led the way with starting DST (ger.: Sommerzeit) during World War I on 30 April 1916 together with its allies to alleviate hardships from wartime coal shortages and air raid blackouts, the political equation changed in other countries e.g. the United Kingdom used DST first on 21 May 1916.[96] U.S. retailing and manufacturing interests led by Pittsburgh industrialist Robert Garland soon began lobbying for DST, but were opposed by railroads. The U.S.'s 1917 entry to the war overcame objections, and DST was established in 1918.[97]

The war's end swung the pendulum back. Farmers continued to dislike DST, and many countries repealed it after the war. Britain was an exception: it retained DST nationwide but over the years adjusted transition dates for several reasons, including special rules during the 1920s and 1930s to avoid clock shifts on Easter mornings.[28] The U.S. was more typical: Congress repealed DST after 1919. President Woodrow Wilson, like Willett an avid golfer, vetoed the repeal twice but his second veto was overridden.[98] Only a few U.S. cities retained DST locally thereafter,[99] including New York so that its financial exchanges could maintain an hour of arbitrage trading with London, and Chicago and Cleveland to keep pace with New York.[100] Wilson's successor Warren G. Harding opposed DST as a "deception". Reasoning that people should instead get up and go to work earlier in the summer, he ordered District of Columbia federal employees to start work at 08:00 rather than 09:00 during summer 1922. Many businesses followed suit though many others did not; the experiment was not repeated.[101]

Since Germany's adoption in 1916 the world has seen many enactments, adjustments, and repeals of DST, with similar politics involved.[102] The history of time in the United States includes DST during both world wars, but no standardization of peacetime DST until 1966.[103][104] In the mid-1980s, Clorox (parent of Kingsford Charcoal) and 7-Eleven provided the primary funding for the Daylight Saving Time Coalition behind the 1987 extension to U.S. DST, and both Idaho senators voted for it based on the premise that during DST fast-food restaurants sell more French fries, which are made from Idaho potatoes;[3] In 1992, after a three-year trial, more than 54% of Queenslanders voted against DST, with regional and rural areas strongly opposed, while those in the metropolitan south-east were in favour.[105] In 2005, the Sporting Goods Manufacturers Association and the National Association of Convenience Stores successfully lobbied for the 2007 extension to U.S. DST.[76] In December 2008, the Daylight Saving for South East Queensland (DS4SEQ) political Party was officially registered in Queensland, advocating the implementation of a dual-time zone arrangement for Daylight Saving in South East Queensland while the remainder of the state maintains standard time.[106] After a three-year trial, more than 55% of Western Australians voted against DST in 2009, with rural areas strongly opposed.[107] In the UK the sport and leisure industry supports a proposal to observe SDST's additional hour year-round.[108] On 14 April 2010, an Independent member, Peter Wellington, introduced the Daylight Saving for South East Queensland Referendum Bill 2010 into Queensland Parliament, calling for a referendum to be held for the introduction of daylight saving for South East Queensland and is scheduled for debate in Parliament in early 2011.[109]

[edit] Terminology

Although daylight saving time is considered to be correct, daylight savings time is commonly used.[110] The form daylight saving time uses the present participle saving as an adjective, as in labor saving device; the first two words are sometimes hyphenated, as in daylight-saving time. The common variants daylight savings time and daylight savings use savings by analogy to savings account. Daylight time is also common.[111] Willett's 1907 proposal used the term daylight saving, but by 1911 the term summer time replaced daylight saving time in draft legislation in Britain,[39] and continental Europe uses similar phrases, such as Sommerzeit in Germany, zomertijd in Dutch and l'heure d'été in France,[96] whereas in Italy the term is ora legale, that is, legal time.

The name of local time typically changes when DST is observed. American English replaces standard with daylight: for example, Pacific Standard Time (PST) becomes Pacific Daylight Time (PDT). British English calls UK time British Summer Time (BST), and typically inserts summer into other time zones, e.g. Central European Time (CET) becomes Central European Summer Time (CEST). Abbreviations do not always change: for example, many (though not all) Australians say that Eastern Standard Time (EST) becomes Eastern Summer Time (also EST).

The American English mnemonic "spring forward, fall back" (also "spring ahead ...", "spring up ...", and "... fall behind") helps people remember which direction to shift clocks. Much of North America now advances clocks before the vernal equinox, so the mnemonic disagrees with the astronomical definition of spring, but a proposed substitute "March forward ..."[112] works only in the northern hemisphere, and is less robust against future rule changes.

[edit] Computing

Strong man in sandals and with shaggy hair, facing away from artist, grabbing a hand of a clock bigger than he is and forcing it backwards. The clock uses Roman numerals and the man is dressed in stripped-down Roman gladiator style. The text says "You can't stop time... But you can turn it back one hour at 2 a.m. on Oct. 28 when daylight-saving time ends and standard time begins."
A 2001 U.S. public service advertisement reminded people to adjust clocks manually.

Changes to DST rules causes problems in existing computer installations. For example, the 2007 change to DST rules in North America required many computer systems to be upgraded, with the greatest impact on email and calendaring programs like Microsoft Outlook; the upgrades consumed a significant effort by corporate information technologists.[113] Some applications standardize on UTC to avoid problems with clock shifts and time zone differences.[114]

Many systems in use today base their date/time calculations from data derived from zoneinfo, which is sometimes known as tzdata.

[edit] Tz database

The tz database maps a name to the named location's historical and predicted clock shifts. This database is used by many computer software systems, including most Unix-like operating systems, Java, and Oracle;[115] HP's "tztab" database is similar but incompatible.[116] When temporal authorities change DST rules, zoneinfo updates are installed as part of ordinary system maintenance. In Unix-like systems the TZ environment variable specifies the location name, as in TZ='America/New_York'. On Linux however there is a system-wide setting that is applied if the TZ environment variable isn't set, this setting is controlled by the contents of the /etc/localtime file, which is usually a symlink or hardlink to one of the zoneinfo files.

Older or stripped-down systems may support only the TZ values required by POSIX, which specify at most one start and end rule explicitly in the value. For example, TZ='EST5EDT,M3.2.0/02:00,M11.1.0/02:00' specifies time for eastern North America starting in 2007. TZ must be changed whenever DST rules change, and the new TZ value applies to all years, mishandling some older time stamps.[117]

[edit] Microsoft Windows

As with zoneinfo, a user of Microsoft Windows configures DST by specifying the name of a location, and the operating system then consults a table of rule sets that must be updated when DST rules change. Procedures for specifying the name and updating the table vary with release. Updates are not issued for older versions of Microsoft Windows.[118] Windows Vista supports at most two start and end rules per time zone setting. In a Canadian location observing DST, a single Vista setting supports both 1987–2006 and post-2006 time stamps, but mishandles some older time stamps. Older Microsoft Windows systems usually store only a single start and end rule for each zone, so that the same Canadian setting reliably supports only post-2006 time stamps.[119]

These limitations have caused problems. For example, before 2005, DST in Israel varied each year and was skipped some years. Windows 95 used rules correct for 1995 only, causing problems in later years. In Windows 98 Microsoft marked Israel as not having DST, forcing Israeli users to shift their computer clocks manually twice a year. The 2005 Israeli Daylight Saving Law established predictable rules using the Jewish calendar but Windows zone files cannot represent the rules' dates in a year-independent way. Partial workarounds, which mishandle older time stamps, include manually switching zone files every year[120] and a Microsoft tool that switches zones automatically.[121]

Microsoft Windows keeps the system real-time clock in local time. This causes several problems, including compatibility when multi booting with operating systems that set the clock to UTC, and double-adjusting the clock when multi booting different Windows versions, such as with a rescue boot disk. In 2008 Microsoft hinted that future versions of Windows will partially support a Windows registry entry RealTimeIsUniversal that had been introduced many years earlier, when Windows NT supported RISC machines with UTC clocks, but had not been maintained since.[122]

An interesting effect can be observed with file time properties. The file system stores the file with a time stamp according to its setting of GMT, but displays it corrected to local—or seasonal—time. When a file is copied from the hard disk onto separate media, its time will be set as the one normally displayed. If the time adjustment is changed, perhaps automatically (Daylight saving) or if the user prefers a different time zone, then look again at the time of the original and its copy—there will be a difference. Often, due to interim time updating, the difference will not correspond exactly to the adjustment and be a few seconds different. This may be verified (without having to wait for the next equinox) by: copying a file, remove the media, adjusting the time zone options, reconnect the media, view the details of the file and its copy. This effect needs to be in mind when trying to determine if a file is a copy of another.

[edit] Notes

Yellowed magazine cover containing mostly print that is too small to read. Near the top is "JOURNAL DE PARIS."
Franklin's 1784 letter about daylight had neither title nor byline.[17]
Pamphlet cover showing a large British flag in red, white, and dark blue, with the large title "THE WASTE OF DAYLIGHT", an unreadable subtitle, and "WILLIAM WILLETT" near the bottom.
William Willett's pamphlet promoting DST went through nineteen editions. [24]
  1. ^ a b c DST practices and controversies:
    • Michael Downing. Spring Forward: The Annual Madness of Daylight Saving Time. Shoemaker & Hoard; 2005. ISBN 1-59376-053-1.
    • David Prerau. Seize the Daylight: The Curious and Contentious Story of Daylight Saving Time. Thunder’s Mouth Press; 2005. ISBN 1-56025-655-9. The British version, focusing on the UK, is Saving the Daylight: Why We Put the Clocks Forward. Granta Books; ISBN 1-86207-796-7.
  2. ^ a b George Gibbs. Hudson, George Vernon 1867–1946. In: Dictionary of New Zealand Biography. 2007-06-22.
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